U radu se prikazuju ključna obilježja politike rodne ravnopravnosti u hrvatskom obrambenom sustavu, kvantitativna analiza dijela sekundarnih podataka i rezultata anketnog istraživanja. Konceptualni model istraživanja utemeljen je na teoriji socijalnog identiteta (Tajfel i Turner, 1979). Cilj istraživanja bio je ispitati u kojoj mjeri sociodemografska obilježja, religioznost, profesionalni kontakti sa ženama, ambivalentni seksizam, stavovi prema ženama u vojsci i iskustvo rodne neravnopravnosti doprinose objašnjenju percepcije rodne ravnopravnosti u vojsci. Ispitan je i posredujući utjecaj stavova prema ženama u vojsci na odnos prediktorskih varijabli i percepcije rodne ravnopravnosti. Uzorak su činili pripadnici djelatnog sastava Oružanih snaga RH (445 muškaraca i 450 žena), a korišten je stratificirani nerazmjerni uzorak te postupak sustavnog slučajnog uzorkovanja. U skladu s teorijskim postavkama rezultati su pokazali da pripadnost određenoj socijalnoj grupi te usporedba vlastite i vanjske grupe dovodi do favoriziranja pripadnika vlastite grupe i većeg diskriminiranja pripadnika vanjske grupe. Nisu utvrđene rodne razlike u percepciji rodne ravnopravnosti, ali su među muškarcima najsnažniju percepciju rodne neravnopravnosti izrazili vojnici te mlađi i niže obrazovani muškarci, a među ženama časnice i žene višeg obrazovanja. Odabrani prediktorski skup bolje je objasnio varijancu kriterija muškaraca (42%) nego žena (26%). Viši stupanj rodne ravnopravnosti percipirali su muškarci koji su zadovoljniji profesionalnim kontaktima sa ženama, imaju pozitivnije stavove prema ženama u vojsci i rjeđe su doživjeli rodno uvjetovanu hostilnu diskriminaciju, te žene koje su rjeđe iskusile rodnu diskriminaciju, koje su zadovoljnije profesionalnim kontaktima sa ženama i slabije podržavaju benevolentni seksizam o idealizaciji žena. Analize su djelomično potvrdile konceptualni model istraživanja, a posredujući utjecaj stavova prema ženama u vojsci utvrđen je samo za muškarce. Veće zadovoljstvo profesionalnim kontaktima sa ženama u vojsci i slabije podržavanje hostilnog seksizma ispitanih muškaraca, putem razvoja pozitivnijih stavova prema ženama u vojsci, doveli su do percepcije više razine rodne ravnopravnosti. Rad naglašava važnost unaprjeđenja postojeće politike i prakse za što je ključno uvažavanje razlika u specifičnim potrebama i iskustvima žena i muškaraca u vojsci te potvrđuje važnu ulogu zapovjednika u promicanju veće tolerancije različitosti.
|Sažetak (engleski)|| |
The military is known as a work environment in which the issues of inequity and underrepresentation of women in terms of functions and duties continue to exist. Therefore, the presence of strong gender-specific stereotypes, roles, and attitudes can be noticed in such an environment, as well as the frequent occurrences of gender-based discrimination. This study presents the key features of the gender equality policy in the Croatian Armed Forces (CAF), some secondary data and the results of the quantitative research. As the gender equality agenda has been implemented for the last ten years in the CAF a conceptual model of determinants of the perception of gender equality based on the Social Identity Theory (SIT) was used (Tajfel and Turner, 1979) in this study. According to the SIT theory, social groups play an important role in each individual’s identity. Specifically, belonging to a particular social group affects individual social perception and evaluation of others. Individuals are positively biased towards their own social group and its members because they develop a positive social identity and greater self-esteem within their own group. At the same time, while striving to achieve a positive social identity with their own group, a discrimination against the external social groups and its members occurs (Al Ramiah et al., 2010; Aronson et al., 2005; Vučković Juroš et al., 2014). The aim of the study was to examine the extent to which socio-demographic characteristics, religiosity, professional contacts with women, ambivalent sexism, attitudes towards women in the military and the experience of gender discrimination contribute to explaining the perception of gender equality in the military. Also, the aim was to examine the mediating effect of attitudes towards women in the military on the relationship between the predictor variables and the perception of gender equality.
The sample consisted of 445 servicemen and 450 servicewomen including active soldiers, non-commissioned officers, and officers from all organizational units of the CAF. They were selected by using a stratified random sampling technique with a disproportionate allocation. The questionnaire included measures of perception of gender equality, attitudes towards women in the military, ambivalent sexism, professional contact with women in the workplace, personal experiences of gender-based discrimination, indicators of religiosity, and socio-demographic and professional question. Analyses were done using hierarchical regression analyses and path analyses.
In accordance with the SIT theory, the results indicated that belonging to a certain social group and comparing one's own group with the external group were associated with favoring members of one's own group, and with a greater tendency to discriminate against members of an external group. Furthermore, the study determined the existence of gender differences in the expression of attitudes towards women in the military, as well as ambivalent sexism towards women. Statistically significant differences in the perception of gender equality between men and women were not found. However, additional analyses showed that among men the groups that stand out with the strongest perception of gender inequality were soldiers, younger men and lower educated men. Among women the strongest perception of gender inequality was expressed by female officers and higher educated women. Women were significantly more likely to experience gender-based discrimination in the workplace, both in the career discrimination and the hostile discrimination.
The selected set of predictors better explained the variance in the perception of gender equality among men (42%) than among women (26%). Additionally, higher levels of gender equality were perceived by men who were more satisfied with their professional contacts with women, those who expressed more positive attitudes towards women in the military and those who experienced gender-based hostile discrimination in the workplace less often. Similarly, higher levels of gender equality were perceived by women who were more satisfied with their professional contacts with women, those who experienced both types of gender discrimination less often, and women who expressed the benevolent sexism (complementary gender differentiation) less. The results partially confirmed the conceptual model of the study. The mediating effect of attitudes towards women in the military was found only among men. More specifically, the results showed that men’s attitudes toward women in the military partially mediate their relationships between hostile sexism and satisfaction with professional contacts with women with their perception of gender equality. In accordance with expectations, greater satisfaction with professional contacts with women and weaker expression of hostile sexism, through the development of more positive attitudes towards women in the military, were associated with the higher level of men’s perception of gender equality. Also, the mediating effect of attitudes towards women in the military on the relationship between the experience of gender discrimination and the perception of gender equality among men was not determined.
The study results demonstrated that attitudes towards women in the military have a different impact on the perception of gender relations among men and women, which is partly determined by intergroup relations as well as the specific military context. The results also indicated that the conceptual model of this study was more adapted to the pattern of intergroup relations of the predominant gender group (men). It is, therefore, necessary to develop separate models for women and men. The results of mediation analysis showed that the development of successful professional contacts between men and women in the military can be a particularly effective mechanism for developing positive attitudes towards women in various roles in the military, as well as higher level of men’s perception of gender equality. The above mentioned study findings suggested an important recommendation, which is that commanders can play an important role in creating optimal conditions for the development of intergroup contacts, preventing all forms of discrimination and promoting greater tolerance of diversity in the workplace. It was also suggested that this may be the most appropriate way to change traditional gender attitudes and to develop organizational culture with equal career prospects for women and men in the military. Finally, this would also lead to the optimal use of all human resources in the armed forces.
In general, this study showed that the existing gender equality policies of the Croatian Armed Forces are not sufficiently effective. This conclusion is confirmed by indicators of educational, horizontal and vertical gender segregation, and based on the results of a survey of attitudes, experiences and perceptions. The study emphasizes the crucial importance of improving gender equality policies and practices taking into account different perceptions, needs and experiences of women and men in the military. Also, the study findings suggest a need for the development of new policies, primarily those that aim to improve work-family balance among military personnel. Furthermore, the study findings emphasize the importance of conducting military trainings based on equal and gender-neutral performance standards to ensure the same levels of professional competencies for women and men in the military. Finally, the findings suggest a development of professional training aimed at raising awareness of the importance of gender issues and enabling service members, particularly commanders, for combating gender discrimination.